1 Warner, K. et al. (2016) Deceptive dishes: Seafood swaps found worldwide. Oceana. Available at: http://usa.oceana.org/publications/reports/deceptive-dishesseafood-swaps-found-worldwide
2 Warner, K. et al. (2013) Oceana study reveals seafood fraud nationwide. Available at: https://oceana.org/reports/oceana-study-reveals-seafood-fraud-nationwide
3 Hu, Y. et al. (2018) “Study of fish products in Metro Vancouver using DNA barcoding reveals fraudulent labeling.” Food Control, 94
4 The Canadian Centre for Food Integrity (2017) Tackling Transparency and How It Builds Trust. Public Trust Research.
5 Marine Stewardship Council (2016) “Study reveals low levels of trust in seafood labels among Canadians.” Available at: https://www.msc.org/media-centre/press-releases/new-research-reveals-levels-of-consumer-trust-in-seafood-labelling Accessed: August 10, 2017.
6 Roebuck, K. et al. (2017) Canadians Eating in the Dark: A Report Card of International Seafood Labelling Requirements. SeaChoice.
7 Townley, A. (2017) “Risk Assessment of Illegal, Unreported, Unregulated and Mislabelled Seafood in Canadian Values Chains.” Dalhousie University. Submitted for publication.
8 FishWise (2017) Advancing Traceability in the Seafood Industry: Assessing Challenges and Opportunities. Available at: https://www.fishwise.org/traceability/traceability-white-paper
9 Ling, K.H. et al. (2009) “Fish-induced keriorrhea.” Adv Food Nutr Res, 57(1). doi: 10.1016/S1043-4526(09)57001-5.
10 Health Canada (2008) Escolar and Adverse Reactions. Available at: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/food-safety/information-product/escolar-adverse-reactions.html Accessed: July 13, 2018
11 Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Product Ingredients and Incoming Materials. Available at: http://active.inspection.gc.ca/rdhi-bdrid/english/rdhi-bdrid/hazdane.aspx?i=2 Accessed: September 15, 2017
12 Agnew, DJ et al. (2009) Estimating the worldwide extent of illegal fishing. PloS one, 4(2)
13 Ibid (2009).
14 Fisheries and Oceans Canada (2016) United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization’s Port State Measures. Available at: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/international/isu-iuu-09a-eng.htm. Accessed: August 17, 2017.
15 Watson et al. (2015) “Provenance of global seafood.” Fish and Fisheries, 17(3): 585–595. doi: 10.1111/faf.12129.
16 McDowell, R. et al. (2015) AP Exclusive: AP tracks slave boats to Papua New Guinea. Associate Press News. Available at: https://apnews.com/c2fe8406ff7145a8b484deae3f748aa5/ap-tracks-missing-slave-fishing-boats-papua-new-guinea
17 Oceana Canada (2017) Seafood fraud and mislabelling in Ottawa. Available at: oceana.ca/seafoodfraudottawa
18 Russell, B. et al. (2016) Lutjanus bohar. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T194363A2321975.en
19 OceanWise (2017) Ocean Wise salmon recommendations for the Canadian market. Available at: http://seafood.ocean.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Ocean-Wise-Salmon-Recommendations-2017.pdf
20 Harnandez, J. (2017) “Unlabelled, ‘unsustainable’ Russian sockeye being sold in Vancouver markets.” CBC News. Available at: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/unlabelled-unsustainable-russian-sockeye-being-sold-in-vancouver-markets-1.4233058
21 Pramod, G. et al. (2014). Estimates of Illegal and Unreported Fish in Seafood Imports to the USA. Marine Policy 48: 102-113.
22 Shehata, H. et al. (2018) “DNA barcoding as a regulatory tool for seafood authentication in Canada.” Food Control, 92, 147-153, Wong, E. & Hanner, R. (2008) “DNA barcoding detects market substitution in North American seafood.” Food Research International, 41: 828–837; Hanner, R. et al. (2011) “FISH-BOL and seafood identification: Geographically dispersed case studies reveal systemic market substitution across Canada.” Mitochondrial DNA, 22(S1): 106–122; Naaum, A. & Hanner R. (2015) “Community engagement in seafood identification using DNA barcoding reveals market substitution in Canadian seafood.” DNA Barcodes 3(1): 74–79.
23 Warner, K. et al. (2016) Deceptive dishes: Seafood swaps found worldwide. Oceana. Available at: http://usa.oceana.org/publications/reports/deceptive-dishesseafood-swaps-found-worldwide
24 Ibid (2016).
25 Mariani el al. (2015) “Low mislabeling rates indicate marked improvements in European seafood market operations.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 13(10)
26 Shehata, H. et al. (2018) DNA barcoding as a regulatory tool for seafood authentication in Canada. Food Control, 92, 147-153
27 FAO (2017) Voluntary guidelines for catch documentation schemes. Available: http://www.fao.org/fi/staticmedia/MeetingDocuments/CDS/TC2016/wpAnnex.pdf
28 G7 2018. (2018) Charlevoix blueprint for healthy oceans, seas and resilient coastal communities. Available at: https://g7.gc.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/HealthyOceansSeasResilientCoastalCommunities.pdf
29 European Commission (2014) A pocket guide to the EU’s new fish and aquaculture consumer labels. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/sites/fisheries/files/docs/body/eu-new-fish-and-aquaculture-consumer-labels-pocket-guide_en.pdf
30 Canadian Food Inspection Agency. CFIA Fish List. Available: http://www.inspection.gc.ca/active/scripts/fssa/fispoi/fplist/fpresults.asp?lang=e&q=&cmbIn=e&cbShowAll=on Accessed: September 29, 2017.
31 Stiles, M. et al. (2013) Stolen Seafood: the impact of pirate fishing on our oceans. Oceana. Available at: http://oceana.org/reports/stolen-seafood-impact-pirate-fishing-our-oceans
32 Pramod, G. et al. (2014) “Estimates of illegal and unreported fish in seafood imports to the USA.” Marine Policy, 48: 102–113.
33 Bailey, M. (2017) Evaluation of the Regulatory and Market Environment to Combat Seafood Mislabelling and Fraud in Canada. Oceana. Unpublished manuscript.
34 Verité (2016) Fishing and Aquaculture. Available at: http://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Fishing-and-AquacultureOverview.pdf
35 McDowell, R. et al. (2015) “AP Exclusive: AP tracks slave boats to Papua New Guinea.” Associate Press News. Available at: https://apnews.com/c2fe8406ff7145a8b484deae3f748aa5/ap-tracks-missing-slave-fishing-boats-papua-new-guinea
36 Urbina, I. (2015) “The Outlaw Ocean.” New York Times. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/07/24/world/theoutlaw-ocean.html
37 Hodal, K. & Kelly, C. (2014) “Trafficked into slavery on Thai trawlers to catch food for prawns.” The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/jun/10/-sp-migrant-workers-new-life-enslaved-thai-fishing
38 G7 2018. (2018) Charlevoix blueprint for healthy oceans, seas and resilient coastal communities. Available at: https://g7.gc.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/HealthyOceansSeasResilientCoastalCommunities.pdf